Types of Software Testing: 15+ Different Testing Types Covered
Software testing companies use different types of testing tools and techniques these days, depending upon the project requirements. The proper application of testing techniques assists a software testing company to verify the functionality of the software, eliminate bugs, and make sure that it works according to the given specifications.
Besides this, testing a software application from security, performance, usability and other aspects is important for QA teams too. As any small error or bug in the application can result in huge financial and reputation loss for your clients.
The industry-wide standard for the budget spent on quality assurance activities in a project is around 25% of total development costs, However, this again depends upon the size & complexity of the project, testing methodology in use, and development process.
A vast majority of testing types and tools exist these days; hence, finding an ideal one can be quite confusing for stakeholders and product owners.
This is why this article will shed light on the most popular types of software testing that you can implement for building a quality software solution:
Different Types of Software Testing
The first and most basic classification of software testing you should know depends upon the level of automation and includes manual and automation testing. The first obvious difference between manual and automation testing is that manual testing is performed by human testers without using any automated tool. QA engineers try to identify bugs in an existing system by analyzing unusual system behavior and errors in varied test scenarios.
Automation testing, on the other hand, includes the usage of automated tools like Selenium. QA teams write automated test cases, which are then executed by automation tools to save time, money, and boost team productivity.
For effective, in-depth test coverage and quality testing, you should always choose a combination of manual and automation testing. With manual testing, you can create test cases of complex scenarios and check the user-friendly aspect of your application. While using test automation you can test faster, better, and with far greater test coverage.
Besides the level of automation, testing is also classified depending upon its objectives into functional and non-functional.
Let’s explore each one by one:
In functional testing, the QA team focuses on verifying the functional or business requirements of the software. They check whether the behavior of a software conforms to its written specifications and business requirements or not. In this process, every module of the application is tested to see whether the desired results are obtained or not. It can be performed both manually and using automation tools. Some popular types of functional testing are:
- Unit Testing
- Integration Testing
- System Testing
- Acceptance Testing
- Regression Testing
Unit Testing: Unit testing includes testing the smallest possible module or part of your application to verify its functionality. Extensive coding knowledge is required to write quality test cases in Unity. It is often performed using automation tools by developers to do it fast and correctly.
Integration Testing: After testing individual units, you need to integrate them and check if the combined modules are working together or not. It aims at identifying faults in application units when they interact with each other. It is usually performed after unit testing.
System Testing: It focuses on testing the entire software system. When the entire system is being put under test, it is known as end-to-end testing. When all elements of the system are developed, this particular testing is executed.
User Interface Testing: The application interface is examined under this particular testing to check whether the UI is developed as per the requirements specification document. Some user interface testing tools like Saucelabs, Protractor, and Monkey Test.
Regression Testing: This particular testing helps in determining the stability of the system as per changing requirements. Testing an entire system after modifications are part of the regression testing.
Sanity Testing: It is a subpart of regression testing. This particular testing is done to verify the new functionality after bug fixes. It is often confused with smoke testing which otherwise aims at verifying critical functionality of the software like application starts successfully or not.
User Acceptance Testing: It is the final phase of functional testing that is done once the unit, functional, integration, and system testing are completed successfully. The main goal here is to check the alignment of the final product with the business requirements and whether it is acceptable for delivery.
The non-functional aspects of the software are examined in non-functional testing. Such aspects include performance, reliability, usability, security, and so on. It is performed after functional testing to further improve software quality. This testing is more about refining the software rather than verifying its functionality. Tests like how secure the system is, how well it performs under stress conditions, and how compliant it is are being executed here.
For example, during iOS app testing, when a company examines its performance with maximum active users, it falls under non-functional testing. The motive here is to check the robustness and functionality of the app with the maximum number of users operating it. Running manual tests are generally not recommended in the case of non-functional tests. Hence, it is performed using automation testing tools. Some popular types of non-functional testing includes:
- Installation Testing
- Documentation Testing
- Reliability Testing
- Security Testing
- Compliance Testing
Let’s discuss all the types of non-functional testing in detail:
Performance Testing: This type of testing focuses on examining how well an application performs when put under various workloads or test conditions. Things like speed, scalability, and stability of a system are put under test here. Automation tools are used by a software testing company to analyze system response times, throughput, and resource utilization levels to meet performance objectives and end-user expectations. Some of the common subtypes include:
Load Testing: This testing focuses on verifying system performance when the workload increases. This could be done by increasing the number of concurrent transactions, users, etc.
Stress Testing: It is done to verify the behavior of a system when put in stress conditions beyond the threshold level.
Volume Testing: It is to verify whether an application can handle the bulk amount of data.
Scalability Testing: It is to verify whether the system effectively handles the gradually increasing workload in terms of the number of users, transactions, etc.
Endurance Testing: It is to verify the performance and behavior of a system when a decent amount of load is put for a certain period.
Security Testing: It is one of the important testing categories under non-functional testing. The objective of this testing is to verify that the system is free from any technology security loopholes that can cause external threats, data loss, or system failure.
Usability Testing: It is executed to verify the user-friendly aspect of any software. Things like how well the application interacts with the end-user while performing core tasks are analyzed here. The idea is to highlight areas of confusion (unclear navigation, design errors, etc.) that affect the overall user experience negatively.
Compatibility Testing: As the name suggests, compatibility testing focuses on checking the performance of the system under different types of operating systems, hardware, databases, and screen sizes. It is for detecting unusual behavior of the system under varying configuration, hardware, etc. It’s important to discard the possibility of system failure after release.
Localization Testing: The motive in this particular testing is to verify that the behavior and performance of the system are aligned with the country or region where it is available. For example, checking multilingual functionality in an international app. This testing mostly focuses on system content and the user interface.
Installation Testing: It is to verify whether the system or application can be installed successfully across different operating systems and hardware. The QA and software testing team also verify the system performance after its installation as part of this testing.
Documentation Testing: This particular type of testing is aimed at verifying the test artifacts that are used throughout the software testing life cycle. Test artifacts like requirements, test plan, traceability matrix, and test cases are validated here.
Compliance Testing: It is done to verify whether the software meets the organization and industry-defined standards or not. Often companies establish a board of compliance and regulations expert people for this very purpose. For example, the software standards followed in the IT industry are formed by large firms like IEEE (International Institute of electrical and electronics engineers) or W3C (World Wide Web Consortium), etc.
Hope you gained a comprehensive understanding of common types of testing that are used in most testing life cycles by experienced QA and testing teams. Usually, the testing strategy and tools are decided by the QA. It depends mainly on the type of project, the solution under development, and your project requirements.
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Drop us a line to know more about QA and software testing services. We’re happy to help!